Research and Science
All relevant work on constituents, possible health risks and test methods are compiled in the following.
Report by the ECA European Candle Association.
DEKRA lecture by Volker Albrecht, 7 May 2014 (not available in english)
Matthäi Gutberlet Feller Schimmelpfennig Stübiger — Measurements of the light intensity of candles of different compositions
The aim of the investigations was to determine the light intensity of candles made of paraffin, beeswax, fat and stearin. In order to obtain evidence of the effectiveness of the combustion of these different candle raw materials, a measurement apparatus was developed, which makes it possible to determine wax consumption and light intensity simultaneously. The ratio (light intensity/wax consumption) of the two variables provides a measure of the effectiveness of the conversion of chemical energy into light.
A new, internationally funded study on candle emissions has confirmed that well-made candles of all major wax types exhibit the same clean burning behaviour, and pose no discernible risks to human health or indoor air quality. (Available in English only.)
A method for determining the soot properties of burning candles is presented. The technical outlay and the costs of this method are favourable in relation to the results achieved. It can be used for both quality assurance and product development (not available in english).
This article describes the raw materials and additives used for candle production and explains the combustion process in the candle flame. Based on the definition and classification of candles, it sets out the criteria that are essential for the safe use of candles, particularly in relation to people and the environment.
The design and content of a necessary European quality standard for candles are derived from this.
A semi-quantitative measuring procedure was developed to determine the soot emission of candles, which is especially suitable for quality control in production. The measurement is carried out in two steps: soot separation on a glass pane under standardised conditions, and photometric determination of the surface of soot precipitation in an integrating photometer (not available in english).